Table 3: Cost-benefit analysis using the human-capital approach of different screening programs for gallstone disease.


Screening group Non-screening group Net cost P-value for t-test

Annual screening
   Direct cost
      Screening cost 13,180 0 13,180
      Other cost 74,792 112,865 –38,073
   Total 87,972 112,865 –24,893
   Indirect cost 49,803 270,148 –220,345
Total (Direct + Indirect cost) 137,775 383,013 –245,238 <0.0001
Biennial screening
   Direct cost
      Screening cost 6,590 0 6,590
      Other cost 88,509 112,865 –24,356
   Total 95,099 112,865 –17,766
Indirect cost 84,926 270,148 –185,222
Total (Direct + Indirect cost) 180,025 383,013 –202,988 <0.0001
3-yearly screening
   Direct cost
      Screening cost 4,393 0 4,393
      Other cost 95,172 112,865 –17,693
   Total 99,565 112,865 –13,300
   Indirect cost 91,023 270,148 –179,125
Total (Direct + Indirect cost) 190,588 383,013 –192,425 <0.0001
4-yearly screening
   Direct cost
      Screening cost 3,295 0 3,295
      Other cost 96,751 112,865 –16,114
   Total 100,046 112,865 –12,819
   Indirect cost 107,005 270,148 –163,143
Total (Direct + Indirect cost) 207,051 383,013 –175,962 <0.0001
5-yearly screening
   Direct cost
      Screening cost 2,636 0 2,636
      Other cost 100,458 112,865 –12,407
   Total 103,094 112,865 –9,771
   Indirect cost 115,403 270,148 –154,745
Total (Direct + Indirect cost) 218,497 383,013 –164,516 <0.0001