• 1,646 Views
  • 644 Downloads
The Open Access Journal of Science and Technology: Vol. 2
Research Article
The Open Access Journal of Science and Technology
Vol. 2 (2014), Article ID 101045, 7 pages
doi:10.11131/2014/101045

Physicochemical Factors: Impact on Spermagglutination Induced by Escherichia coli

Kiranjeet Kaur and Vijay Prabha

Department of Microbiology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India

Received 19 November 2013; Accepted 20 December 2013

Academic Editor: Stefanos Kachrilas

Copyright © 2014 Kiranjeet Kaur and Vijay Prabha. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Motility is a sensitive parameter of sperm function which is predictive of its fertilization potential in vitro. The decrease in sperm motility may be associated with sperm agglutination and immobilization due to mere presence of bacteria or excretion of bacterial toxic products. Supplementation with various agents like sucrose, mannitol, calcium, and EDTA is well known to improve the sperm motility in vitro. The present study was designed to check any protective role exerted by the addition of different agents on spermatozoal motility against E. coli induced sperm agglutination. 52 semen specimens were screened for the presence of sperm-agglutinating strain of E. coli. Further, influence of various factors, namely, sugars, salts, and chelating agents was studied. Also, the impact of exposure to high temperature and alcohol on sperm-agglutinating efficiency of E. coli was observed. None of the factors could inhibit the sperm agglutination induced by E. coli, except high temperature suggesting the involvement of protein moiety. In addition, it was observed that agglutinating efficiency of E. coli was limited to spermatozoa and RBCs. It may be concluded that sperm-agglutinating property of E. coli is quite stable as various physicochemical factors tested did not show any negative effect on the same except high temperature.

Introduction

Sperm is a highly specialized cell that must express diverse arrays of properties including motility, acrosome reaction, zona recognition, and fusion with oocyte [1]. Among all, sperm motility and viability are most essential for successful fertilization. Motility is an expression of the viability and structural integrity of the cell as the fertile life of a spermatozoon can be measured by the duration of its motility [2]. Hence, spermatozoa dysfunction is the single most important cause of infertility. The negative impact of some microorganisms relevant to genital infections on sperm function has been claimed [3]. Some possible pathomechanisms of the development of infertility linked with infection are considered: direct effect on sperm function (motility, morphology, etc.), deterioration of spermatogenesis, autoimmune processes induced by inflammation, and dysfunction of accessory sex glands [4]. Recent studies have shown that the simple presence of bacteria in semen samples may compromise the semen quality [5]. The above-said facts were further justified by an observation made by a group of scientists wherein improvement of semen quality following eradication of infection was seen [6].

Various microorganisms isolated from semen sample include Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Micrococci, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Morganella morganii. Amongst all, E. coli represents the most frequently isolated microorganism in male patients with genital tract infections or semen contamination [5]. The negative influence of this species on sperm quality is partially due to its effect on sperm motility via sperm immobilization/agglutination. Paulson and Polakoski [7] investigated the mechanism of how E. coli immobilizes spermatozoa and they reported a factor, apparently excreted by the bacteria which immobilizes spermatozoa without agglutinating it. However, Diemer et al. [7] reported that E. coli inhibits sperm motility by directly adhering to and agglutinating spermatozoa.

There is evidence that fertilization related events can be accomplished in vitro by incubating sperm under specific conditions [9]. Enhancement of sperm motility was seen with supplementation of spermatozoa using different sugars, salts, and chelating agents in vitro. Thus, the present study was aimed at the isolation of sperm agglutinating strain of E. coli from semen sample and determination of the influence of various factors, namely, sugar, salt, and chelating agents on sperm agglutination induced by bacteria. Further, effect of exposure of E. coli to temperature and alcohol on its sperm agglutinating efficiency was checked. In addition, agglutinating property of the isolate on other eukaryotic cells, namely, RBCs, spores of fungus spores,and yeast cells was explored.

Material and Methods

Semen samples

Spermatozoa were obtained from males undergoing evaluation of fertility at Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India, by masturbation following a 48 h abstinence period. Only ejaculates showing normal sperm parameters according to World Health Organization criteria [10] were used. The number of sperm was checked by counting in a haemocytometer and count was adjusted to 40×106 spermatozoa/ml using phosphate buffered saline (PBS; 50mM, pH 7.2). The protocols for the present study were approved by the Panjab University Institutional Ethics Committee: vide letter no. 02/PUIEC dated 25.03.09

Bacterial Samples

Semen samples of 52 men undergoing semen analysis (PGIMER, Department of Urology, Chandigarh, India) were collected in the sterile wide mouth container by masturbation. Before taking samples, the patients' recent medical history was taken into consideration. The semen samples were taken only from those males who were without clinical symptoms of urogenital infections and who had not had antibiotic intake for at least a week. All the samples were rapidly transferred to laboratory and samples underwent liquefaction at room temperature for 30 minutes. Then, the samples were streaked on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar plates separately and the plates were incubated aerobically at 37C for 24–48 h.

Identification of the isolates showing the presence of Gram negative rods was carried out using Bergeys Manual of Bacteriology [11] and HiMotility Biochemical kit (HiMedia laboratories, Mumbai, India). In the present study, 7 isolates of E. coli were obtained.

Sperm Bacteria Interaction

All the E. coli isolates were grown in Luria broth (LB) for 48 h at 37 C under shaking conditions (150 revolutions per minute (rpm)). 0.1ml of semen sample containing 40×106 spermatozoa/ml was mixed with 0.1ml of bacterial cultures and incubated at 37 C for different time intervals viz. 30 min, 1, 2, 3, and 4 h. 10 μl of the mixture taken after each time interval was placed on a clean glass slide, covered with a coverslip and observed under X400 objective for sperm agglutination using a bright field microscope (Olympus India Pvt. Ltd.). As control, sterile uninoculated LB broth was mixed with semen sample and observed for sperm agglutination. On the basis of microscopic examination, a strain of E. coli giving maximum sperm agglutination was selected for further study.

Serotyping and Transmission Electron Microscopy

Serotyping of E. coli strain exhibiting maximum sperm agglutination was outsourced from Central Research Institute (CRI), Kasauli. Sample was prepared by stabbing 24 h old culture of the isolate in 2 ml of nutrient agar (NA) and sealed using parafilm under aseptic conditions.

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was carried out to look for the presence of fimbriae. A 2–3 mm colony of E. coli was inoculated in 10 ml of LB and allowed to grow for 48 h at 37 C under shaking conditions. The cell culture was centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 20 min and pellet so obtained was suspended in 100 μl of PBS. For transmission electron microscopy, E. coli cells were fixed in 6% glutaraldehyde and embedded in Epon Araldite. Postfixation was done by using 1% osmium tetraoxide in 100 mM phosphate buffer. The fields were observed for the presence or absence of fimbriae after mounting on copper grids.

Various factors influencing the agglutination reaction

The effect of various factors, namely, sugars, salts, chelating agents, temperature, and alcohol was checked on sperm-agglutinating efficiency of E. coli. For these experiments, aliquots of 2 ml of 48 h old culture grown in LB at 37 C under shaking conditions (150 rpm) were used. All the aliquots were centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 10 min and pellet so obtained was washed twice with PBS and suspended in the same buffer. 2 ml of bacterial suspension was used as such in case of temperature and alcohol treatment. Each experiment was carried out thrice with samples from different donors.

Sugars

48 h old culture of bacteria was grown and divided into aliquots of 2 ml. Each aliquot was centrifuged and the pellet so obtained was washed twice with PBS. To each aliquot, 0.1 ml of semen sample (40×106 spermatozoa/ml) was added. To determine the effect of various sugars, namely, sucrose, galactose, mannitol, mannose, maltose, dextrose, and xylose on sperm agglutination, different concentrations of sugar solutions were added in each aliquot in order to achieve a final concentration of 1 mM and 5 mM. As control, 0.1 ml of semen sample (40×106 spermatozoa/ml) was mixed with 0.1 ml of PBS or bacterial suspension or sugar solutions. On completion of incubation period, that is, after 2 h, one drop (10 μl) of each was placed on glass slide covered with a coverslip and checked for agglutination at X400 magnification under ordinary light microscope.

Salts

The effect of various salts, namely, MnSO4, MgSO4.7H2O, NaCl, (NH4)2SO4, KCl, CuSO4, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 was examined on the sperm-agglutinating property of E. coli. For this, different aliquots containing 0.1 ml bacterial suspension and 0.1 ml of semen sample (40×106 spermatozoa/ml) were used. Different concentrations of salt solutions were added in each aliquot in order to achieve a final concentration of 1 mM and 5 mM, respectively. As control, 0.1 ml of semen sample (40×106 spermatozoa/ml) was mixed with 0.1 ml of PBS/bacterial suspension/salt solutions. After 2 h of incubation, agglutination induced by E. coli was checked by light microscopy which was compared with control.

Chelating agents

The effect of two chelating agents, namely, EDTA and sodium citrate, was checked on sperm agglutination by E. coli. For this, 0.1 ml of washed bacterial culture was mixed with 0.1ml of semen sample (40×106 spermatozoa/ml) and incubated with respective concentrations (1 mM and 5 mM) of EDTA and sodium citrate. As control, 0.1 ml of semen sample (40×106 spermatozoa/ml) was mixed with 0.1 ml of PBS or bacterial suspension or chelating agents. After incubation of 2 h, each sample was observed for sperm agglutination under light microscope.

Temperature

In order to study the effect of dead bacteria on sperm agglutination, the bacteria were killed using heat treatment. Aliquots of 2 ml of 48 h old culture of E. coli were exposed to different temperatures, namely, 40, 50, 60, 80, and 100 C for 10 and 30 min and checked for nonviability by subsequent culturing on NA plates. To find out the effect of live and dead bacteria on sperm agglutination, 0.1 ml of fresh ejaculate (40×106 spermatozoa/ml) was mixed with 0.1 ml of the bacterial suspension on a glass slide and examined at X400 under the microscope. The stability of cell suspension was also checked at lower temperature, that is, 4 C. For this, aliquots of bacterial suspension were kept in refrigerator for 4 weeks and sperm agglutination was checked by taking out 0.1 ml of suspension per week and examined as described above.

Alcohol treatment

Aliquots of 2 ml of 48 h old culture of E. coli were exposed to 10 volumes of 1, 10, 25, and 50% alcohol and kept at room temperature under shaking conditions (150 rpm) for 1 h. After incubation, all the aliquots were centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 10 min and the pellet so obtained was washed thrice with PBS and suspended in the same buffer. For checking agglutination, equal volumes (0.1 ml) of these suspensions were mixed with semen sample (40×106 spermatozoa/ml) for 2 h. After 2 h, 10 μl from each aliquot was placed on glass slide and covered with coverslip to be examined under microscope at X400 magnification.

Effect of E. coli on other eukaryotic cells
RBCs

2% RBC suspension of human blood and 24 h old cell culture of E. coli was prepared, separately. 50 μl of PBS (pH 8.0, 50 mM) was added to each well of microtiter plate. To the first well, 50 μl of the bacterial suspension was added and serially diluted with PBS. Further, 50 μl of 2% suspension of human RBCs was added in each well. The plate was kept on a Microshaker and incubated at 37 C for 2 h. The wells were checked with naked eye for button or mat formation at the bottom of each well.

Yeast cells and fungal spores

24 h old culture of yeast (Candida sp.) and spores of one-month-old cultures of Aspergillus niger grown on a slanted Sabouraud's agar were suspended in 2 ml of saline. 0.1 ml of these suspensions was mixed with 0.1 ml of 24 h old cell culture of E. coli separately and incubated for 4 h. After each time interval, the slides were checked for agglutination microscopically.

Results

Characterization of the isolate

An ideal identification of isolate causing maximum sperm agglutination within 2 h of incubation was carried out using HiMotility biochemical identification kit (HiMedia Laboratories, Mumbai, India). Biochemical profiling and serotyping confirmed the isolate to be E. coli belonging to Rough type. TEM analysis revealed the strain to be fimbriated (Figure 1).

F1
Figure 1: Transmission electron micrograph of E. coli showing presence of fimbriae.
Factors affecting the agglutination reaction induced by E. coli
Sugars

Coincubation of semen sample with different sugar solutions did not have any adverse effect on sperm motility except dextrose. Presence of dextrose itself had some inhibitory effect on sperm motility leading to 25% immotility in comparison to control. However, degree of sperm agglutination induced by E. coli was not inhibited in presence of any of sugar solution. It was observed that, within 2 h of incubation, E. coli resulted in 100% sperm agglutination except in case of dextrose wherein only 70% of agglutination of motile cells was seen. These results suggested that none of the sugar had protective effect on sperm against the agglutination induced by E. coli.

Salts

Effect of various salts on sperm-agglutinating property of E. coli was seen. Results showed that MgSO4.7H2O and CuSO4 had negative effects themselves on the motility of spermatozoa at both the concentrations of 1 mM and 5 mM though no effect on efficiency of E. coli induced sperm agglutination was found in the presence of any of the salts.

Chelating agents

Effect of chelators like sodium citrate and EDTA was observed on sperm-agglutinating efficiency of E. coli. Results showed that presence of sodium citrate and EDTA did not inhibit immobilization of spermatozoa induced by E. coli.

Temperature

In order to bring about killing of bacteria, aliquots of 48 h old culture were exposed to different temperatures, namely, 40, 50, 60, 80, and 100 C and plated on NA to obtain viable count. It was observed that exposure to 80 C and 100 C for 10 min could bring about complete killing of bacteria. In case of lower temperatures, about 4- and 3- log decrease in cell count was observed at 60 C and 50 C for 30 min, respectively, while no decrease was found in case of 40 C. After heat treatment, incubation of live and dead bacteria with spermatozoa was carried out to study the effect of live and dead bacteria on sperm agglutination. For this, 0.1 ml of bacterial suspensions killed by heat treatment was incubated with 0.1 ml semen sample, separately. Agglutination was checked at different time intervals. As positive control, live bacteria were incubated with semen.

Mixing of live bacteria with semen leads to agglutination and dampening of sperm motility which increased with time. No agglutination was observed even after 2 h of incubation with bacterial suspension exposed to 80 C and 100 C (Figure 2). Hence, it was evident that only live E. coli can significantly depress the motility of human spermatozoa via agglutination and indicated that active component involved in sperm agglutination might be protein in nature. Also, no negative impact on sperm-agglutinating efficiency of E. coli was observed even after 4 weeks of exposure at 4 C as 100% sperm agglutination could be seen.

F2
Figure 2: (a) Agglutination of motile spermatozoa by live E. coli (X 400) and (b) no agglutination by dead E. coli (X 400).
Alcohol

Effect of different concentrations of alcohol was seen on sperm-agglutinating potency of E. coli. It was observed that even after the treatment of culture with 10 volumes of 1, 10, 25, and 50% ethanol for 1 h, no adverse effect on sperm agglutination was seen (Figure 3).

F3
Figure 3: Effect of alcohol treatment on sperm agglutination by E. coli.
Effect of E. coli on other eukaryotic cells
RBCs

Results showed the presence of haemagglutination activity of E. coli towards human RBCs with titer of 1:16 as evident by agglutination of RBCs with culture while button formation at the bottom of the wells was due to unlysed RBCs in control.

Yeast and Fungal spores

Incubation of E. coli with either yeast or fungal spores could not induce agglutination in any case even after incubation till 4 h.

Discussion

The negative impact of some microorganisms relevant to genital infections on sperm function has been claimed. Changes in sperm parameters that could account for infertility include reduced cell counts, reduced motility, or morphological alteration [12]. It is already known that these parameters play a vital role in the fertility potential of a man. Moreover, if spermatozoa prematurely lose motility, they also lose their natural fertilization potential since they cannot travel to meet oocyte. Among various microorganisms associated, E. coli appears to be the most important pathogen isolated from the ejaculate [13]. The direct inhibitory effect of E. coli on progressive motility of spermatozoa is being reported. Inhibition of motility is either directly by agglutination or indirectly by the secreted products leading to immobilization. This study presents agglutination of spermatozoa by E. coli obtained from the ejaculate of males attending infertility clinic. Serotyping of selected E. coli strain revealed it to be of rough type. The strain was capable of causing 100% sperm agglutination within 2 h of incubation. The agglutination was of mixed type, that is, head to head, head to tail, and tail to tail. These kinds of direct interactions between bacteria and spermatozoa have already been discovered for different bacterial species such as Mycoplasmas, Ureaplasma urealyticum [14], and Chlamydia species [15].

Though various studies are available in the literature in regard to the sperm-agglutinating property of E. coli, very few have checked the impact of important factors such as temperature and alcohol on E. coli. Teague and Nelson [16] reported complete absence of sperm agglutination on incubation with heat killed E. coli. Similarly, in the present study exposure of bacterial suspension at 60 C for 10 min decreased the percent agglutination to mere 30% while no agglutination was observed at higher temperatures. The absence of immobilization and agglutination of spermatozoa upon incubation with killed E. coli could be suggestive of some labile factor present on bacterial cells which is taking part in agglutination. However, this mechanism clearly requires further investigation. Hosseinzadeh et al. [17] have also shown that live Chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs) can have a direct and detrimental effect on sperm physiology whereas heat treatment abolishes the same. Similar results were also obtained in case of S. aureus [18].

Further to examine any adverse effect applied by alcohol on agglutinating property of E. coli, aliquots of bacteria were exposed to different percentages of alcohol. No decrease was seen in agglutinating efficiency of E. coli even after the exposure to 50% of alcohol. These results are in accordance with earlier studies made by Rosenthal [19]. It was reported that cells of E. coli mixed with 10 volumes of neat alcohol still had the capacity to agglutinate spermatozoa efficiently.

Reports from earlier studies showed increased total active sperm motility on supplementation with different sugars, namely, xylose, sucrose, and mannitol [20,21,22]. Stimulation of progressive motility of human washed sperm was reported in presence of manganese (Mn2+) and potassium (K+) at particular concentrations [23,24]. Impact of different chelating agents has also been reported. Data showed decreased motility in presence of sodium citrate while improved semen motility was seen in case of EDTA [25]. The finding that supplementation with various agents such as sugars, salts, and chelating agents improves the motility of spermatozoa in vitro prompted us to carry out few experiments. The study was designed to check whether the addition of any of these agents can enhance the motility of spermatozoa in presence of E. coli.

When the effect of various sugars was examined, results showed that the addition of none of the sugar could inhibit the sperm agglutination induced by E. coli. These results are in contrast to the earlier studies wherein the addition of mannose, gal-gal, or α-methyl mannopyranoside blocked sperm-E. coli agglutination [26,27]. Bartoov et al. [28] proposed that mannose plays a critical role in adherence of E. coli to sperm and inhibition of this interaction by mannose is indicative of involvement of type-1 fimbriae. However, from the results of the present study it may be suggested that adherence of isolated strain of E. coli does not involve type-1 fimbriae.

Coincubation of different salts with E. coli and sperm was carried out to assess any protective role exerted by them. The agglutinating reaction of E. coli was not inhibited in the presence of any of the salts. However incubation of two salts MgSO4 or CuSO4 with sperm alone had negative impact on sperm motility. Adverse effect on motility by Cu2+ and Mg2+ has already been reported at similar concentrations; hence, the results of the present study are in line with previous reports [29,24]. No blocking effect was seen in case of the chelating agents as the addition of neither sodium citrate nor EDTA blocks the agglutination reaction.

So far very few studies have correlated the manifestations of an agglutinating factor inherent in strains of E. coli. Also, references in this subject are very few and concern only agglutination of red cells and spermatozoa. Therefore, to determine how widely the agglutinating property is encountered with this rough E. coli, it was incubated with RBCs, spores of fungus and yeast cells. The strain could induce agglutination of RBCs while no agglutination was found in the remaining two. These results are in accordance with earlier study made by Rosenthal [19] wherein few E. coli strains capable of causing agglutination of RBCs had no effect on other cells.

Conclusion

Bacteriospermia has a negative effect on sperm quality. Amongst all, E. coli is the most common bacteria with negative influence on sperm motility. Various factors including sugars, salts, alcohol, and chelating agents did not show any adverse impact on sperm-agglutinating efficiency of E. coli.

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

Acknowledgement

This study was funded by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, New Delhi). We also acknowledge the help of Dr. SK Singh, PGIMER, Chandigarh, in procuring the semen samples.

References

  1. R. S. Sidhu, J. Hallak, R. K. Sharma, A. J. Thomas, and A. Agarwal, Relationship between creatine kinase levels and clinical diagnosis of infertility, Journal of assisted reproduction and genetics, 15, 188–192, (1998). PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text | Google Scholar
  2. F. O. Ekhaise and F. R. Richard, Common Bacterial Isolates Associated with Semen of Men Complaining of Infertility, World Journal of Medical Sciences, 3, 28–33, (2008).
  3. M. Berktas, S. Aydin, Y. Yilmaz, K. Cecen, and H. Bozkurt, Sperm motility changes after coincubation with various uropathogenic microorganisms: an in vitro experimental study, International urology and nephrology, 40, 383–389, (2008). PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text | Google Scholar
  4. O. V. Bukharin, M. D. Kuz'min, and I. Ivanov, The role of the microbial factor in the pathogenesis of male infertility, J Microbio Epidemiol Immunobiol, 2, 106–110, (2003). PubMed Abstract
  5. E. Moretti, S. Capitani, N. Figura, A. Pammolli, M. G. Federico, V. Giannerini, and G. Collodel, The presence of bacteria species in semen and sperm quality, Journal of assisted reproduction and genetics, 26, 47–56, (2009). PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text | Google Scholar
  6. E. M. Quesada, C. D. Dukes, G. H. Deen, and R. R. Franklin, Genital infection and sperm agglutinating antibodies in infertile men, The Journal of Urology, 99, 106–108, (1968). PubMed Abstract
  7. J. D. Paulson and K. L. Polakoski, Isolation of a spermatozoal immobilization factor from Escherichia coli filtrates, Fertility and sterility, 28, 182–185, (1977). PubMed Abstract
  8. T. Diemer, W. Weidner, H. W. Michelmann, H. G. Schiefer, E. Rovan, and F. Mayer, Influence of Escherichia coli on motility parameters of human spermatozoa in vitro, International journal of andrology, 19, 271–277, (1996). PubMed Abstract
  9. H. D. Moore and M. A. Akhondi, In vitro maturation of mammalian spermatozoa, Reviews of Reproduction, 1, 54–60, (1996). PubMed Abstract
  10. , A Laboratory Manual For the Examination and Processing of Human Semen, WHO Press, Geneva, Switzerland, 2010, 5th edition..
  11. D. H. Bergey and G. J. Holt, Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, USA, 1994..
  12. A. Naessens, W. Foulon, P. Debrucker, P. Devroey, and S. Lauwers, Recovery of microorganisms in semen and relationship to semen evaluation, Fertility and sterility, 45, 101–105, (1986). PubMed Abstract
  13. M. Huerta, R. Cervera Aguilar, I. Hernández, and A. R. Ayala, Frequency and etiology of seminal infections in the study of infertile couples, Ginecología y obstetricia de México, 70, 90–94, (2002). PubMed Abstract
  14. R. Núñez-Calonge, P. Caballero, C. Redondo, F. Baquero, M. Martínez-Ferrer, and M. A. Meseguer, Ureaplasma urealyticum reduces motility and induces membrane alterations in human spermatozoa, Human reproduction (Oxford, England), 13, 2756–2761, (1998). PubMed Abstract
  15. T. Erbengi, Ultrastructural observations on the entry of Chlamydia trachomatis into human spermatozoa, Human reproduction (Oxford, England), 8, 416–421, (1993). PubMed Abstract
  16. N. S. Teague, S. Boyarsky, and J. F. Glenn, Interference of human spermatozoa motility by Escherichia coli, Fertility and sterility, 22, 281–285, (1971). PubMed Abstract
  17. S. Hosseinzadeh, I. A. Brewis, A. Eley, and A. A. Pacey, Co-incubation of human spermatozoa with Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E causes premature sperm death, Human reproduction (Oxford, England), 16, 293–299, (2001). PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text | Google Scholar
  18. S. Kaur, V. Prabha, G. Shukla, and A. Sarwal, Interference of human spermatozoa motility by live Staphylococcus aureus, Am J Biomed Sci, 2, 91–99, (2010).
  19. L. Rosenthal, Spermagglutination by bacteria, Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 28, 827–828, (1931).
  20. C. Yildiz, A. Kaya, M. Aksoy, and T. Tekeli, Influence of sugar supplementation of the extender on motility, viability and acrosomal integrity of dog spermatozoa during freezing, Theriogenology, 54, 579–585, (2000). PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text | Google Scholar
  21. G. B. Quan, Q. H. Hong, Q. Y. Hong, H. Y. Yang, and S. S. Wu, The effects of trehalose and sucrose on frozen spermatozoa of Yunnan semi-fine wool sheep during a non-mating season, Cryo letters, 33, 307–317, (2012). PubMed Abstract
  22. F. C. Molinia, G. Evans, and W. M. Maxwell, Effect of polyols on the post-thawing motility of pellet-frozen ram spermatozoa, Theriogenology, 42, 15–23, (1994). PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text | Google Scholar
  23. O. Magnus, I. Brekke, T. Abyholm, and K. Purvis, Effects of manganese and other divalent cations on progressive motility of human sperm, Archives of andrology, 24, 159–166, (1990). PubMed Abstract
  24. F. Lahnsteiner, The effect of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ on sperm motility in the perch, Perca fluviatilis, Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, (2013). Publisher Full Text | Google Scholar
  25. N. Wroblewski, W. B. Schill, and R. Henkel, Metal chelators change the human sperm motility pattern, Fertility and sterility, 79 Suppl 3, 1584–1589, (2003). PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text | Google Scholar
  26. H. Wolff, A. Panhans, W. Stolz, and M. Meurer, Adherence of Escherichia coli to sperm: a mannose mediated phenomenon leading to agglutination of sperm and E. coli, Fertility and sterility, 60, 154–158, (1993). PubMed Abstract
  27. M. Monga and J. A. Roberts, Spermagglutination by bacteria: receptor-specific interactions, Journal of andrology, 15, 151–156, (1996). PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text | Google Scholar
  28. B. Bartoov, D. Ozbonfil, M. C. Maayan, E. Ohad, and Y. Nitzan, Virulence characteristics of male genital tract Escherichia coli isolated from semen of suspected infertile men, Andrologia, 23, 387–394, (1991). PubMed Abstract
  29. F. S. Steven, M. M. Griffin, and E. N. Chantler, Inhibition of human and bovine sperm acrosin by divalent metal ions. Possible role of zinc as a regulator of acrosin activity, International journal of andrology, 5, 401–412, (1982). PubMed Abstract
The Open Access Journal of Science and Technology: Vol. 2
Research Article
The Open Access Journal of Science and Technology
Vol. 2 (2014), Article ID 101045, 7 pages
doi:10.11131/2014/101045

Physicochemical Factors: Impact on Spermagglutination Induced by Escherichia coli

Kiranjeet Kaur and Vijay Prabha

Department of Microbiology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India

Received 19 November 2013; Accepted 20 December 2013

Academic Editor: Stefanos Kachrilas

Copyright © 2014 Kiranjeet Kaur and Vijay Prabha. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Motility is a sensitive parameter of sperm function which is predictive of its fertilization potential in vitro. The decrease in sperm motility may be associated with sperm agglutination and immobilization due to mere presence of bacteria or excretion of bacterial toxic products. Supplementation with various agents like sucrose, mannitol, calcium, and EDTA is well known to improve the sperm motility in vitro. The present study was designed to check any protective role exerted by the addition of different agents on spermatozoal motility against E. coli induced sperm agglutination. 52 semen specimens were screened for the presence of sperm-agglutinating strain of E. coli. Further, influence of various factors, namely, sugars, salts, and chelating agents was studied. Also, the impact of exposure to high temperature and alcohol on sperm-agglutinating efficiency of E. coli was observed. None of the factors could inhibit the sperm agglutination induced by E. coli, except high temperature suggesting the involvement of protein moiety. In addition, it was observed that agglutinating efficiency of E. coli was limited to spermatozoa and RBCs. It may be concluded that sperm-agglutinating property of E. coli is quite stable as various physicochemical factors tested did not show any negative effect on the same except high temperature.