Table 3: Weighted proportion of objectively-determined medical conditions and associations across lifestyle groups, NHANES 2003-2006.


Weighted Mean/Proportion/Odds Ratio (95% CI) Estimates Across the Lifestyle Behavior Groups

Variable Meets PA Guidelines and Positive LIPA-SED Balance (Considered Healthiest Group) Meets PA Guidelines and Negative LIPA-SED Balance Does Not Meet PA Guidelines but has Positive LIPA-SED Balance Does Not Meet PA Guidelines and Negative LIPA-SED Balance (Considered Unhealthiest Group)

Vision, %
Normal Vision ( n = 5226) 15.1 (13.9–16.3) 27.2 (24.6–29.8) 8.9 (7.7–10.0) 48.7 (46.3–51.1)
URE ( n = 351) 20.9 (15.6–26.2) 20.1 (14.7–25.5) 9.7 (5.5–13.9) 49.1 (42.4–55.9)
Vision Impairment (VI) ( n = 141) 2.8 (0.0–5.8) 9.0 (0.9–17.0) 6.8 (1.6–11.9) 81.2 (73.0–89.5)
Odds Ratio: VI vs. Other † ( n = 5283) Referent 1.86 (0.60–5.72) 3.41 (0.79–14.7) 5.07 (1.70–15.1)
Hearing
Mean High Frequency Pure Tone Average ( n = 1529) 22.5 (20.0–24.9) 25.3 (22.5–28.0) 25.0 (21.6–28.4) 34.0 (31.6–36.4)
Mean Low Frequency Pure Tone Average ( n = 1529) 12.1 (10.8–13.4) 13.6 (12.0–15.3) 16.3 (12.8–19.8) 18.8 (17.7–20.0)
% Hearing Within Normal Limits ( n = 669) 19.8 (16.5–23.2) 30.8 (25.9–35.6) 9.7 (6.2–13.3) 39.5 (35.0–44.0)
% Mild Hearing Loss ( n = 252) 11.7 (7.4–15.9) 28.7 (21.9–35.6) 10.1 (3.7–16.4) 49.3 (39.2–59.5)
% Moderate-Severe Hearing Loss ( n = 608) 9.1 (6.4–11.8) 20.7 (16.3–25.1) 5.7 (3.2–8.1) 64.3 (59.1–69.5)
Odds Ratio: Moderate-Severe Hearing Loss vs. Other † ( n = 1399) Referent 1.26 (0.64–2.48) 1.00 (0.48–2.06) 1.42 (0.89–2.29)
Peripheral Arterial Disease
Mean ABI ( n = 1,675) 1.11 (1.09–1.12) 1.12 (1.11–1.14) 1.07 (1.06–1.09) 1.07 (1.05–1.08)
% Normal ABI ( n = 381) 12.5 (10.6–14.4) 26.0 (21.8–30.2) 9.0 (6.5–11.5) 52.4 (48.5–56.2)
% Abnormal ABI ( n = 1294) 4.9 (2.2–7.6) 11.5 (5.1–17.8) 8.7 (4.6–12.9) 75.0 (68.2–81.2)
Odds Ratio: Abnormal ABI vs. Normal ABI † ( n = 1546) Referent 1.39 (0.53–3.60) 1.98 (0.61–6.41) 2.56 (1.25–5.25)
Peripheral Neuropathy, % ‡
No Peripheral Neuropathy ( n = 1,616) 10.7 (9.4–12.0) 22.3 (18.7–25.9) 8.4 (6.7–10.1) 58.4 (54.7
Peripheral Neuropathy ( n = 347) 7.3 (3.1–11.5) 18.4 (10.2–26.5) 7.2 (2.1–12.2) 67.0 (61.4–72.5)
Odds Ratio: Peripheral Neuropathy vs. No Peripheral Neuropathy † ( n = 1805) Referent 1.04 (0.39–2.80) 0.87 (0.37–2.03) 0.95 (0.52–1.75)
Chronic Kidney Disease, %
With Chronic Kidney Disease ( n = 650) 2.6 (0.6–4.7) 10.0 (6.4–13.6) 5.2 (2.8–7.7) 82.0 (77.1–86.9)
Without Chronic Kidney Disease ( n = 5,223) 16.4 (15.1–17.6) 27.8 (25.2–30.4) 9.3 (8.2–10.3) 46.4 (43.9–48.9)
Odds Ratio: Kidney Disease vs. No Kidney Disease † ( n=5559) Referent 1.51 (0.64–3.57) 1.60 (0.66–3.87) 2.68 (1.25–5.75)
Cardiorespiratory Fitness
VO2max (mL/kg/min) ( n = 684) 41.2 (39.3–43.2) 40.8 (39.5–42.1) 37.0 (34.0–40.0) 35.0 (33.8–36.2)
Fitness Status, %
Low Fitness ( n = 126) 20.7 (12.8–28.7) 27.2 (18.2–36.2) 12.0 (4.5–19.5) 39.9 (31.5–48.3)
Moderate Fitness ( n = 239) 24.8 (19.4–30.1) 36.6 (29.1–44.2) 8.8 (5.0–12.5) 29.6 (23.1–36.2)
High Fitness ( n = 319) 29.8 (24.5–35.2) 42.9 (35.8–49.9) 7.2 (3.7–10.8) 19.9 (15.0–24.7)
Odds Ratio: Low Fitness vs. Other † ( n = 643) Referent 1.16 (0.51–2.62) 1.93 (0.58–6.44) 2.87 (1.40–5.86)

VI = Vision impairment
URE = Uncorrected refractive error
ABI = Ankle Brachial Index
† Separate models were examined for each condition. Controlling for age, gender, race-ethnicity, poverty status (poverty-to-income ratio), smoking (cotinine), and body mass index.
‡ Assessed only in 2003–2004 NHANES cycle.
Bold indicates statistical significance ( P< 0.05)