Table 1: Description of maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcome by study groups.


Characteristics Controls normal pregnancies n = 300 mild preeclampsia n = 67 severe preeclampsia n = 33 P value

Maternal age (years)* 27.52±5.04 (17‒42) 27.43±5.85 (17‒42) 29.24±5.77 (16‒43) P>0.05†
<20 5.33 8.96 9.1
20‒25 29.0 40.3 12.12
26‒30 40.0 19.4 42.42
31‒35 21.0 19.4 24.24
>35 4.67 11.94 12.12
Parity (%)
Primipara 46.67 65.67 60.61 P<0.05†
Multipara 53.33 34.33 39.39
Maternal age (years)* of primiparas (%) n = 140 25.9±4.5 n = 44 25.7±5.5 n = 20 27.2±6.3 P>0.05†
<20 10.0 13.6 15.0
20‒25 38.6 47.7 20.0
26‒30 35.0 20.5 45.0
31‒35 13.6 11.4 10.0
>35 2.8 6.8 10.0
Maternal age (years)* of multiparas (%) n = 160 28.9±4.5 n = 23 30.7±5.2 n = 13 32.38±2.8 P = 0.058†
<20 1.3 0 0
20‒25 20.6 26.1 0
26‒30 44.4 17.4 38.5
31‒35 27.5 34.8 46.1
>35 6.2 21.7 15.4
Education (years) (%)
0‒8 27.66 46.27 48.48 P<0, 05‡
9‒12 53.0 38.8 36.37
>12 19.34 14.93 15.15
Smoking status (%) 10.33 1.49 30.3 P<0.05‡
Nationality (%) P<0.05‡
Macedonian 83.67 68.66 66.67
Muslims 14 31.34 30.3
Other 2.33 0 3.03
BMI(%)* 22.65±1.698 25.53±1.58 25.8±2.15 P<0.01§
<19.99 1.67 0 0
20.0‒24.99 87.33 23.88 30.3
25.0‒29.99 11.0 76.12 69.7
>30 Weight gain (kg) 0 13.95±3.1 (7‒29) 0 19.59±3.78 (13‒31) 0 20.24±7.36 (10‒39)
Week of Preeclampsia onset (%)    - P<0.01‡
<25 0 18.18
26-30 7.46 24.24
>31 92.54 57.58
Duration of hypertension    - 4.79±2.59 (1‒14) 7.97±4.31 (2‒16) P<0.01§§
Duration of pregnancy 39.57±0.9 (37‒42) 39.09±0.92 (37‒40) 37.48±2.04 (32‒40) P<0.01†
Birth weight in percentile for gestational age (%)
<5 0 5.97 33.34 P<0.05†
5‒9.90 3 23.88 30.31
10‒89.90 93.33 70.15 36.36
90‒94.9 1.34 0 0
>95 2.33 0 0

Data are given as mean, standard deviation and % unless otherwise specified; n = number of subjects; Controls = normal pregnancies; MP- Mild preeclampsia, SP- Severe preeclampsia; BMI- body mass index; † multivariate analysis; ‡ chi-squared test; §multivariate analysis, univariate ANOVA and Spearman correlation coefficient; §§Student's t test.