Dr. He is an Associate Professor at the University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. His laboratory research has two major thrusts: (1) Dry-lab bioinformatics research; and (2) Wet-lab Brucella microbiology and immunology research. Dr. He's primary bioinformatics research focuses on the development of ontologies, ontology tools, databases, and analysis systems to address various biomedical questions. His laboratory has focused their bioinformatics research efforts on the study of host-pathogen interactions (HPI) and vaccines against infectious diseases. They have developed VIOLIN (http://www.violinet.org), a web-based comprehensive vaccine database and analysis system. Brucella is a model organism in Dr. He's wet-lab research. Brucella spp. are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that cause chronic brucellosis in various animals and humans. Dr. He's laboratory has used systems biology and molecular microbiology/immunology methods to analyze the host-Brucella interaction mechanisms and develop effective and safe Brucella vaccines.