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Stages, Causes and Symptoms of Neuroblastoma

Stages, Causes and Symptoms of Neuroblastoma

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Commentary - (2023) Volume 8, Issue 1

B. Loiac*
 
*Correspondence: B. Loiac, Department of Medical Oncology, University Hospital, Tours, France, Email:

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1. Description

A malignant tumour called neuroblastoma develops in the nerve tissue of newborns and very young children. The aberrant cells are frequently seen in the embryonic baby’s nerve tissue, where they later grow to become a visible tumour. While neuroblastoma does occasionally affect adults, it is uncommon in children older than 10 years old. The tumour typically starts in the tissues of the abdominal adrenal gland, although it can also grow in the neck, chest, or spinal cords nerve tissue. The kidneys sit on top of the adrenal glands. These glands secrete hormones and other vital chemicals needed for the body’s regular operations. The cancer cells from neuroblastoma can swiftly spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body (for example, lymph nodes, liver, lungs, bones, central nervous system and bone marrow). Two-thirds of all children with neuroblastoma will develop some form of metastatic illness.

Despite being uncommon, neuroblastoma is the cancer that affects newborns the most frequently. Neuroblastoma is diagnosed in about 800 children in the US each year. Neuroblastoma almost often manifests before the age of five. Babies may experience it before birth. Neuroblastoma is incredibly rare in children under the age of 10.

1.1. Several stages of neuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma develops in several stages:

Stage L1: This is the stage with the lowest risk. L1 tumours have not migrated to other parts of the body. Moreover, the tumour has no impact on the body’s vital organs (no image defined risk factors are present).

Stage L2: At this point of the disease, the tumour is confined to a single site on the body, yet cancer cells may still have spread to surrounding lymph nodes, for instance. Moreover, important bodily parts are involved, such as a tumour around large blood veins (i.e., at least one image defined risk factor is present).

Stage M: Also known as “distant metastatic illness,” this stage is marked by the spread of cancer cells to multiple body regions. The riskiest phase is this one.

Stage MS: Children under the age of 18 months are affected by this “special” kind of neuroblastoma. The skin, liver, or bone marrow is the only organs where the cancer cells have spread (or metastasized) at this stage. The prognosis for kids with MS stage neuroblastoma is often quite good. Neuroblastoma in stage MS is typically seen as a low risk condition.

When immature nerve tissues (neuroblasts) proliferate out of control, neuroblastoma results. A tumour is created when the cells continue to grow and divide abnormally. The neuroblast’s genes are altered, which results in the uncontrollable growth and division of the cells. Healthcare professionals are uncertain of the genetic mutations root cause.

1.2. Causes of neuroblastoma

The likelihood of a child developing neuroblastoma increases if there is a family history of the disease. Yet neuroblastoma is not inherited 98% to 99% of the time (or, passed down in families). The risk of neuroblastoma in children born with other congenital anomalies (birth defects) may be increased.

1.3. Symptoms of neuroblastoma

The symptoms of neuroblastoma might be modest or severe. They differ based on the location of the tumour and the disease’s stage. By the time symptoms start to show, cancer has most frequently migrated to other bodily parts. One or more lumps just under the skin that may be blue or purple, or a bump or lump in the neck, chest, pelvis, or abdomen (belly), are symptoms (in infants).

• Dark circles under the eyes or puffed up eyes (it may look like the child has a black eye).
• Appetite loss, sickness, vomiting, or diarrhoea.
• Exhaustion, fever, and cough.
• Pale skin, a symptom of anaemia (low red blood cells).
• A painfully swollen stomach.
• Difficulty breathing (usually in young babies).
• Leg and foot numbness, paralysis, or other movement issues.

Author Info

B. Loiac*
 
Department of Medical Oncology, University Hospital, Tours, France
 

Citation: B. Loiac “Stages, Causes and Symptoms of Neuroblastoma”. Pediatr Oncol. Vol.8.

Received Date: Mar 10, 2023 / Manuscript No: PO-23-93709 / Editor Assigned: Mar 13, 2023 PreQC No: PO-23-93709 (PQ) / Reviewed Date: Mar 27, 2023 / QC No: PO-23-93709 / Revised Date: Jun 09, 2023 Revised Manuscript No: PO-23-93709 (R) / Published Date: Jun 16, 2023 Doi: 10.11131/PO.23.8.008

Copyright: © 2023 B. Loiac. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.