The Open Access Journal of Science and Technology

Abstract

Demographic Profile and Pathological Patterns of Head Injury in Albania

Author(s): Sabri Hoxha, Bardhyl Çipi, Flamur Hoxha, Brunela Kullolli, Brela Xhaferaj, Alkerta Ibranji, and Ervin Çerçiz Mingomataj

Introduction: Head injury (HI) is a serious morbid state caused by structural changes of the scalp, skull, and/or its contents, due to mechanical forces. Generally, the most frequent cause of HI is road traffic accident (RTA), followed by homicidal and falling injuries. The aim of present study is to assess epidemiology data, causes and patterns responsible for HI among Albanian subjects. Methodology: All HI cases (1000) are collected by the Forensic Institute of Albania, based on medical and forensic records of traumatized subjects between 2007- 2012. The prospectively-collected and descriptive information is focused on demographic data, responsible factors, type and level of cranial and brain injury, as well as their outcome. Results: The majority of HI victims were male (84%) of age range of 15yrs -35yrs (70%). RTA was the HI cause in 88%, followed by homicides (3.8 %), falling (3%) etc. With respect to injury mechanisms, extra-dural hematoma was found in 93% of cases, followed by cerebral edema (61%), cerebral contusion (37 %), skull bone fractures (35%), etc. Severe alteration of the consciousness was observed in 57% of the cases, while amnesia lasted longer than 4 weeks in 44% of the subjects included in our study. Discussion: This survey demonstrates that the majority of HI victims’ is young and middle age males target group exposed to RTA. The increase of vehicles’ use in placecountry-regionAlbania is more evident than RTA-related HI, indicating that driving newer vehicles with safer technology or helmets use while motorcycling can potentially decline the fatal outcome.

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